1 Historical Perspective of Teacher Education in the state:
Teacher Education has a long history in Karnataka. The first training college was started in Dharwad in the year 1857, in order to train school teachers. The Normal Schools (with the sole purpose of training in service teachers of hobli schools) came into existence in the year 1868. These institutions were at that time shifted from place to place after completion of training of teachers of that place. These institutions were later converted into Vernacular Normal schools in 1933.
Both TCL - (Teacher Certificate Lower) for teachers with Class 8 qualification and TCH - (Teacher Certificate Higher) for teachers with SSLC qualification with one year duration - courses were existing prior to reorganization of states in 1956. The duration of TCH course was increased to 2 years and curriculum was revised in 1966. P U C (XII class) qualification was made a pre requisite qualification for the entrance for TCH course in the year 1987 - 1988.
The curriculum for the T C H course was revised from the academic year 2002 - 03 and the Course was renamed as Diploma in Education (D.Ed,) Course. The duration of the course was extended from two years to 2 ½ years to include six months of internship. This was reduced to two years due to popular demand in 2004 - 05 and 3 months internship was made part of the 2 year course.
2 Year wise growth of Elementary Teacher Training Institutions in Karnataka
The Year wise growth of these teacher training institutions is reproduced here:
The Government lifted the ban on establishment of new training institutions in 2003 - 04. This led to the establishment of a large number of new institutions in the subsequent years.
3 Introduction to Teacher Education:
Management of Teacher Education is one of the most important activities of this department. Teacher Education has two components - Pre service education and In service education.
In pre service education sector, there are two more sub components leading to the courses of Bachelor of Education degree - B Ed degree in secondary education sector and Diploma in Education- D Ed in elementary education sector. The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) is the regulatory authority in granting recognition and fixing the in take of each training institution.
The Teacher Education unit also looks after all in service teacher training programs (other than SSA programs) of both primary and secondary teachers in the state.
4 Pre Service Education (Elementary):
In Elementary teacher education sector, the state had 134 teacher training institutions providing the Diploma in Education Course (D Ed) with a duration of 2 years.
(a) 20 District Institutes of Education & Training (DIETs),
(b) 17 Government Teacher Training Institutions (TTIs),
(c) 40 private aided teacher training institutions (TTIs),
(d) 57 private un aided teacher training institutions (TTIs).
During 2003 – 04, the DSERT called for applications for starting new elementary teacher training institutions in the state. 898 applications were received. No Objection Certificates (NOCs) were issued by the government for starting of 675 new elementary teacher training institutions. After recognition by NCTE, these institutions started functioning from 2004 – 05. A total of 888 unaided elementary teacher training institutions are functioning as on June 2007.
Admission to D Ed course, is through the Centralised Admission Cell (CAC) and is by counseling on the basis of a computerized list of merit cum roster system. For admission to D Ed course the candidate must have passed II PUC/ XII standard or equivalent examination with a minimum of 50% of total marks. In respect of SC/ST/ Category I/PH candidates the minimum marks is 45 %. A minimum of 50% seats are reserved for women candidates in each category.
The Government quota in Government institutions is 100%, Government Aided institutions is 75%, Private Unaided institutions is 50% and Private Minority institutions is 25%.
Even though the National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE) is the designated authority for granting recognition and fixing the intake, the DSERT coordinates all the academic and administrative activities concerning these institutions – prescribing the curricula, preparation of text books, approval of admissions (through the DIETs), approval of appointments of staff in the aided institutions, fixing the academic calendar, disbursement of grant in aid (through DIETs), management of government training institutions, inspection of private institutions through DIETs, etc.,
The Examination to the D Ed course is conducted by the Director (Other Examinations), Karnataka Secondary Education Examination Board, (KSEEB) Bangalore.
The management of D.PEd institutions was shifted to DSERT in 2005 - 06. As on date there are 1 Government, 3 aided, 46 unaided Physical education colleges in the state.
5 Curriculum of D.Ed Course:
These teacher training institutions were giving pre service training to teacher educators in the 2 year TCH (Teacher Certificate Higher) course earlier. The syllabus for the TCH course was last revised in 1991. Since then several experiments and new practices have taken place in the elementary education field.
Drawing from several innovative approaches in the field of primary education, the curriculum for the elementary teacher training program was revised from the academic year 2002 – 03 and the Course was renamed as Diploma in Education Course with internship. The state, thus became a pioneer in introducing internship in elementary teacher education in the country.
The objective of the revised D.Ed. Course is to:
1. Prepare professionally qualified teachers for our elementary schools.
2. Provide additional material through content enrichment to equip the teachers to develop a more thorough understanding of the subjects.
3. Enable the teachers to obtain content mastery through selection of subject groups.
The Subjects prescribed are distributed in I & II year of the course as follows;
|First Year||Second Year|
|Edn 1 Conceptual Bases of Education||Edn. 1 Trends in Modern Education|
|Edn 2 Psychology in modern education||Edn. 2 Edl.Management., School Org.|
|Edn 3 Curriculum Transaction||Edn. 3 Content based methodology-I|
|Edn 4 Content based Methodology||Edn. 4 Contentbased methodology -II|
|Edn 5 Practicum I||Edn. 5 Practicum I|
|Edn 6 Practicum II||Edn. 6 Practicum II|
|Edn 7 Health &Physical Edn.||Edn.7 Health &Phy.Edn|
|Edn 8 Work Edn.||Edn.8 work Edn|
|Edn 9 content enrichment||Edn.9 Action Research|
2.6 Pre service Education (Secondary):
In the secondary teacher education sector, there were 70 colleges of education providing the one year B Ed degree course in 2002 - 03.
|1) Government Colleges of Teacher Education||6|
|2) University College of Education, Dharwar||1|
|3) Private aided B Ed. Colleges||22|
|4) Private Unaided Colleges||39|
|5) Ramakrishna Institute of Moral &Spiritual Education, Mysore||1|
|6) Regional Institute of Education, Mysore||1|
|Total Number of BEd Colleges||70|
During 2003 - 04, fresh applications were called for starting of new secondary teacher training institutions by the universities. 431 applications were received. The government has issued No Objection Certificates (NOCs) to 293 institutions for starting of new secondary teacher training colleges. After recognition by NCTE, these institutions started functioning from 2004 – 05. As on June 2007, 336 unaided secondary teacher training colleges are functioning in the state.
These secondary teacher training colleges are affiliated to various universities in Karnataka State. The curricula is prescribed by the respective universities and the examination is also conducted by them.
The National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE) is the designated authority in granting recognition to these colleges every year. The in take is fixed uniformly at 100 seats per college. Regional Institute of Eduction, Mysore (a unit of NCERT) and Ramakrishna Institute of Moral and spiritual education, Mysore are outside the central admission system.
The Government quota seats are filled up by a written test and on merit cum roster through the Centralised Admission Cell (CAC) every year.
The DSERT coordinates the management of all the secondary teacher education colleges in the state. It also disburses grant in aid to colleges, and approves appointments of staff in aided colleges.
7 Historical Perspective of In service training:
Karnataka is a pioneer in institutionalizing in-service training. Even as early as 1888 one training class at Maharani Girl’s School Mysore had been opened for training lady teachers. (source Gazetteer of India, 1988,Karnataka State, Mysore district Page No.647)
After independence, the Department made a first attempt at in service training as early as 1958, by setting up Orientation Training Centre (OTC) in Bangalore for training primary school teachers in science and mathematics. This training centre happened to be a premier training centre in the state training 400 elementary teachers every year in these two subjects. Though qualitatively it was able to achieve certain standards, the reach had been limited and totally inadequate to meet the demands of the teachers of the entire state.
The teachers’ associations also conducted some training for the teachers once a month in the teachers’ meetings by arranging demonstration classes, etc.,
8 In service Education (Elementary Education)
The objectives of in-service training are:
§ To provide support for the continued professional develop ment of teachers after they join service
§ To strengthen the knowledge base of the teachers keeping in view the developments in the field.
§ to acquaint them and help them use many child centric approaches for improved curricular transaction.
§ giving inputs for class-room transactions but also develop various competencies that help the teachers to become facilitators and guides.
§ Help teachers play multiple roles effectively and efficiently.
The DSERT formulates plans and coordinates the implementation of the various primary teacher training programs at the state level. At the district level the structures of DIETs, and at the Block level, Block Resource Centers (BRCs) and at the cluster level, Cluster Resource Centers(CRCs) are used to conduct the various training programs of teachers.
The 20 DIETs started in phases from 1991 – 92, are located at Bangalore (Rural & Urban), Mandya, Mysore, Kudige, Mangalore, Hassan, Kolar, Tumkur, Chikkamagalore, Shimoga, Dharwar, Belagaum, Kumta (Uttara Kannada), Ilkal (Bagalkote), Kamalapur (Gulbarga), Bidar, Yarmarus (Raichur), Bellary and Davanagere.
Based upon the Teacher Education Perspective Plan for Karnataka prepared and submitted by DSERT, seven more DIETs were sanctioned in 2005 – 06 and these are located at Chitradurga, Udupi, Bijapur, Koppal Chamarajanagar, Haveri and Gadag., These institutions are being funded under the centrally sponsored scheme of Teacher Education of the Government of India.
These DIETs conduct continuous in service programs to primary teachers under their jurisdiction. Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA) each DIET also gets substantial funds (depending upon the number of teachers in their jurisdiction) for conducting in service teacher training programs for primary teachers.
Some of the programs conducted by these DIETs area)
a)Training in preparation of Action Plans to BRC and CRC Coordinators,
b) IED training programs,
c) Head Teachers’ training programs,
d) English language training Programs,
e) Workshops for teachers of Mahiti Sindhu Schools,
f) Content Enrichment workshops for teachers,
g) yoga & Value Education
h) Training in use of new text books,
i) Training in Multi grade and Multi level teaching,
j) Action Research,
k) Training to anganwadi teachers in Early Childhood Education,
l) Use of Education technology in teaching,
m) Experience Sharing workshops for teachers,
n) Training in Preparation of Question Papers and Evaluation,
o) Work Experience,
p) Evaluation of Education Department programs,
q) Dramatisation in Education,
r) Training in life skills
s) Adolescent Education awareness programs
t) Administrative training for non teaching staff of respective district.
The DSERT under takes -
1) Identification of training needs of teachers,
2) preparation of training modules,
3) training of state level and district level Key Resource Persons,
4) Printing and distribution of teachers’ hand books,
5) Use of teleconferencing facilities at DSERT for training of district/Block level resource groups and teachers,
6) Orientation training of teacher educators at both elementary level and secondary level,
Actual training of the elementary teachers and teacher educators are being conducted through the DIETs and BRCs.
Several International, National and state level institutions and also NGOs collaborate with DSERT in these training programs
1) UNICEF / UNFPA
2) World Bank/World Links,
3) Education Development Center, Washington DC
4) NCERT/NIEPA, New Delhi.
5) Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore,
6) ISRO, Bangalore.
7) National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), Bangalore.
8) Regional Institute of English, Bangalore,
9) Institute for Social and Economic change(ISEC), Bangalore.
10) Regional Institute of Education, Mysore.
11) NIMHANS, Bangalore,
12) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Bangalore.
13) Azim Premji Foundation, (APF) Bangalore.
14) Bangalore Medical Services Trust (BMST), Bangalore.
15) Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology.
16) Sri Abdul Nazir Sab State Institute for Rural Development, Mysore.
17) R V Educational Consortium, Bangalore.
18) National Law School, Bangalore.
Number of primary Teachers trained (Year wise):
|Year||No.of Teachers Trained|
Note 1: The number of teachers trained up to 2001 – 02, shows the number trained by DIETs only and does not include teachers trained by D P E P.
Note 2: The number of teachers trained by DIETs from 2002 – 03 has shown a significant increase as the DIETs also conducted teacher training for S S A.
*Teachers trained for 17.89 days
** Teachers trained for 12.16 days.
9 In Service Education (Secondary Sector):
Formerly the departments of extension services of teachers’ colleges were conducting in service training programs for secondary teachers.
Some of the religious institutions having a chain of institutions were also organizing their own in service training programs for the teachers working in their institutions and some times other teachers as well. These served a limited purpose for limited teachers.
The NPE 1986 which gave a great push to institutionalise in service programs brought about many structured changes in the conduct of In service programs. Now, in service Education for secondary teachers and teacher educators is being conducted through the following institutions:
1) RV Institute of Advanced Studies in Education, Bangalore conducts training programs for teacher educators and faculty of other teacher training Institutions. Teacher educators and also staff of all training institutions (including those of DIETs and CTEs) are also being trained in concepts like Lab Area, Micro Teaching, Action Research, Education Technology, Quality Management, Evaluation, etc., through the R.V. Institute of Advance studies in Education, Bangalore.
2) In 2005 – 06, the College of Teacher Education, Gulbarga was also upgraded as an IASE..
3) The In service training of secondary teachers is being conducted through 5 Government Colleges of Teacher Education and 4 Private Colleges of Teacher Education:
(i) Government College of Teacher Education, Mysore.
(ii) Government College of Teacher Education, Mangalore.
(iii) Government College of Teacher Education, Chtradurga.
(iv) Government College of Teacher Education, Belagaum.
(v) Government College of Teacher Education, Jamakhandi.
(vi) MES College of Teacher Education, Bangalore.
(vii) Vijaya College of Teacher Education, Bangalore.
(viii) Kotturuswami college of Teacher Education, Bellary
(ix) MLMN College of Teacher Education, Chikkamagalore
Secondary School Teachers Trained (Year wise)
|No.of Teachers Trained||5712||3777||9978||7254||13965||20723||5498||7224||3536||4220|
Improvement of Professional qualification of staff:
In order to enable the staff of DSERT, DIETs and CTEs to acquire higher qualifications, (on an average 30 per year) staff are being deputed to M.Ed courses of various universities in the state.
Some of the faculty of DSERT and DIETs are also being deputed on a regular basis to courses conducted by National and State level Institutions like NIEPA, CCRT, NCERT, ISEC, IIM, ATI and RIE, Mysore
10 Early Childhood Care Education (ECCE) was taken up in collaboration with Department of Women and Child Welfare. This program aims at providing resource materials to anganawadi teachers. This is a unique program that has been adopted in Karnataka, wherein 42 themes have been developed and these are taught on a weekly basis throughout the year with the help of songs, stories, etc.
To support this unique approach DSERT, in coordination with UNICEF, the Department of Women and Child Development, NIPCCD, some NGOs and resource persons, has developed an ‘Activity Bank’ (called Chili-Pili in Kannada) which is a collection of about 100 stories, songs, creative activities and games in the local language, with attractive illustrations, for the overall development of children. Copies of this collection have already been distributed to Anganwadi centres in Janashala Blocks and training has been imparted to concerned workers on its usage.
11 Objectives of DIETs:
DIETs were established with a view to –
1. provide pre-service and inservice education to elementary teachers, headmasters, officers with a view to provide excellence in education
2. provide inservice education to the functionaries of non-formal and adult education and also SDMC members
3. Plan and manage teacher education and other related activities in the districts
4. develop curriculum, teaching learning materials and techniques of evaluation
5. provide resource support to elementary, adult and non-formal education in the districts
6. take up action research and experiments in education for quality improvement.
12 Important functions of DIET s —
DIETs provide academic leadership in elementary education in their respective districts. Apart from the designated functions (pre service and in service programs) DIETs carry out the following important additional activities also –
1. In Karnataka state, some DIETs i.e. Kodagu and Belgaum are catering to issues related to tribal education with a large number of out of school children. Since teacher training is one of the major quality indicator, four districts mainly Belgaum, Gulbarga, Tumkur, Kolar and Bidar have an additional responsibility of catering to the linguis tic minority group of Marathi, Urdu, Tamil and Telugu. In other dis tricts like Kolar and Chitradurga provision has been made for orientation of in service teachers in minority languages also.
2. Each DIET designates an officer for each educational block as a nodal officer. This officer supervises all the academic activities of the department. He visits the schools periodically and follows up on the training programs.
3. The DIETs also coordinate all the technology initiatives of the department – Computer education in schools – Mahiti sindhu, Revised class project, Eleventh Finance Commission project, and computer assisted learning Centres financed by SSA and run by Azim Prmji Foundation.
4. The DIETs monitor the distance mode programs – Keli – Kali (Radio) and Edusat (TV) programs.
5. DIETs are also entrusted with the evaluation of the Akshara Dasoha (Hot cooked Mid day meal program).
6. DIETs also coordinate various educational interventions like - ‘Chinnara Angala (Summer Bridge Courses), ‘Samudayadatta shale” (School towards Community) - which have tremendous significance in bringing out of school children to the main stream and retaining them. These activities are also to be monitored by the DIET staff, and the necessary support and guidance is extended to the district DDPI.
7. DIETs act as nodal centers for Centralised Admission Cell, Bangalore in the admission process to government quota seats in all elementary and secondary teacher training institutions in the respective districts.
8. DIETs have another major responsibility to take up periodical inspections and visits to all elementary teacher training institutions in the district. They also conduct the internal assessments of these institutions and co – ordinate with the DSERT and KSEEB at District level.
9. DIETs conduct all departmental examinations conducted by Karnataka Public Service Commission and other examinations conducted for teacher recruitment both at the primary and secondary levels.
10. Since the launch of the SSA program, the training of all inservice teachers in the district has been the sole responsibility of the DIETs.
11. DIETs are performing activities under REMS (Research Evaluation Monitoring and supervision) preparation assigned by SSA.
12. The DIETs have recently launched their own web sites giving details of their activities.
Evaluation of functioning of DIETs, CTEs and IASE has been given to PG department of Karnatak University, Dharwar.
13 BRCs and CRCs:
In Karnataka DIETs, BRCs and CRCs play a pivotal role in the implementation of in service education. All the elementary in service training programs have been implemented through the DIETs, BRCs and CRCs.
Block Resource Centres and Cluster Resource Centres which came into existence earlier in D P E P districts, have been later started in other districts by SSA. This has helped in bringing in uniformity in training and monitoring through out the state.
The main idea behind the formation of DIETs, BRCs and CRCs is to establish the practice of initial training as a starting point followed by an on going in service education throughout the teacher’s career. These institutions are also required to set up good models for the induction of new teachers, investigate the structure and control of in service education, develop the problem solving and consultancy based approach, evaluate and improve courses as a method of in service education and fulfill the local academic requirements through in service training.
The Academic responsibility of these institutions has considerably increased due to the advent of S S A and also keeping in view of the orientation of in service teachers in different curricular subjects - Kannada, English, Environmental sciences, Mathematics and other non scholastic subjects like physical education, Art, Music and work experience.
The BRCs have been further strengthened through additional infrastructure support by SSA, XI Finance Commission 12th finance commission and also state government. Satellite Receiving Stations (in KU band) have been set up in each of the BRCs, so that on line training and support can be provided direct from DSERT itself.
In 2006-07, another innovative practice was introduced by DSERT. The monthly experience sharing workshops were converted to regular one day thematic training programs. The content was prepared by DSERT, printed and distributed which helped the Master Resource Persons at Block and Cluster levels to conduct one day orientation training of all elementary teachers. This helped to reach the target of conducting 20 day in service training programs for all elementary teachers.
14 District Primary Education Project (DPEP)
District Primary Education Project, a world bank aided project - introduced in Karnataka from 1994, in sixteen educational districts in two stages - has brought about a sea change both in improvement of infrastructure and academic development. The districts were selected based on the low literacy rate among women and also where the Total Literacy Campaign was successful. The main objectives of DPEP were-
· Universalisation of access for primary education
· Universalisation of retention
· Universalisation of learning achievements i.e., to increase the learn ing levels at least by 25% over the measured base line achievements
· Capacity building i.e., to increase the capacity of teachers and other administrative strata through trainings
· To reduce the gap of achievement levels between the generaland female children and other socially backward groups (SCs & STs) to less than 5% over the measured baseline achievement.
In order to achieve these objectives in the stipulated time frame it was found that teacher development was one of the aspects that needed attention. Infrastructure such as BRC and CRC training Centres, were put in place in all the DPEP districts. After a thorough study it was found that capacity building of teachers was the urgent need.
15 In-service training in DPEP Districts:
DPEP made an earnest attempt to get the feed back from the teachers on the need of the type of training they require and the gaps in the then training programs. During the experience sharing workshops with teachers questions raised by the primary school teachers helped trainers develop new methodologies. How to handle in multi-grade situations and ongoing continuous evaluation were the focus of the DPEP Program .
Salient features of DPEP training programs were –
§ The participatory mode of training was evolved
§ A standard design of a teacher training workshop was evolved.
§ Capacity building of teachers happened to be the priority area.
A ten days orientation course in attitude and communication skills was developed. However the participation by the teachers was found to be not satisfactory probably because of the long duration. Hence the same was reduced to 6 days and training modules were also provided. Supplementary reading materials were provided. Through the introduction of ‘adona ba’ the in service program became a participatory one.
§ In-Service Training got institutionalised
§ Most of the Government school teachers in DPEP districts were covered under these programs
§ Several types of Training packages like Chaitanya, Adona Baa, Nali – Kali and Kali Nali, were evolved
NALI - KALI, KELI - KALI and KALI - NALI are the products of DPEP. All these approaches to teaching learning processes have transformed the classroom transaction to a very great extent. NALI - KALI is also being implemented in ten blocks of Karnataka under the Janashala Program. Though there are some limitations such as need for high motivation amongst teachers, acceptance by the parents, participation of the community etc., this approach stands as an ideal solution to our present day requirement at the lower levels of elementary education.
KELI -KALI a radio broadcasting program for 3rd ,4th and 5th standards was widely accepted by teachers and children. This enables tonot only provide additional resource material but also helps in the improvement of quality of child’s learning and enrolment. Further this breaks the monotony.
Though the number of teachers trained is impressive it was taken to see that the training did not deteriorate into a number game. One problem that periodically attracted the attention was that the teachers were going away from the subject matter or ignore the module that they are not comfortable with. Also the trainers were not fully equipped with interacting with the teachers in the genuinely participatory mode of teaching.
Moreover moving away from the traditional lecture dominated mode to a mode other than the genuinely participatory mode enabling trainees to discuss, debate and reflect on issues, plus reach conclusions that they can ‘own’, requires skills, which all BRC faculty were not as yet fully equipped with. Clarity regarding how activity based teaching pedagogy to be imparted in the training with the present text books in use in the schools also needed to be studied. There was also no clarity regarding the issues relating to child by child evaluation and developing a child friendly atmosphere. These were the areas identified for intervention and further improvement.
DPEP also gave impetus to development of competency based and activity oriented text books in primary schools. Text books also became child friendly, attractive and colourful. They also started playing the role of work books simultaneously.
16 Sarva Shikshana Abhiyan (SSA)
S S A can be viewed as an extension of DPEP in mission mode. All the programs which had been taken up by DPEP have been continued under SSA as well. While DPEP covered only 16 educational districts, SSA covers the entire state with a whole lot of new interventions as well which has been given in more detail in a separate chapter.